Protein: P99999

Uniprot: Electron carrier protein. The oxidized form of the cytochrome c heme group can accept an electron from the heme group of the cytochrome c1 subunit of cytochrome reductase. Cytochrome c then transfers this electron to the cytochrome oxidase complex, the final protein carrier in the mitochondrial electron-transport chain.Plays a role in apoptosis. Suppression of the anti-apoptotic members or activation of the pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family leads to altered mitochondrial membrane permeability resulting in release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. Binding of cytochrome c to Apaf-1 triggers the activation of caspase-9, which then accelerates apoptosis by activating other caspases. more..

Function 1: Electron transport protein. Condition: presence in mitochondrion.

Function 2: Activation of apoptosis by binding to Apaf-1 that triggers the activation of caspase-9, which then accelerates apoptosis by activating other caspases. Condition: release in the cytosol due to altered mitochondrial membrane permeability.

Publications (PMID): 12714060

Module ID (MoonGO) GO ID (BP) GO Name
340 GO:0016070 RNA metabolic process
340 GO:0010467 gene expression
340 GO:0060255 regulation of macromolecule metabolic process
Module ID (MoonGO) GO ID (CC) GO Name
340 GO:0005634 nucleus
GO ID (BP) GO Name Evidence Code (GO EC)
GO:0006122 mitochondrial electron transport, ubiquinol to cytochrome c TAS
GO:0006123 mitochondrial electron transport, cytochrome c to oxygen TAS
GO:0006470 protein dephosphorylation IEA
GO:0007005 mitochondrion organization TAS
GO:0008635 activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process by cytochrome c TAS
GO:0034599 cellular response to oxidative stress TAS
GO:0045333 cellular respiration TAS
GO:0097193 intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway TAS
GO ID (CC) GO Name Evidence Code (GO EC)
GO:0000159 protein phosphatase type 2A complex TAS
GO:0005634 nucleus IDA
GO:0005739 mitochondrion IDA
GO:0005743 mitochondrial inner membrane TAS
GO:0005758 mitochondrial intermembrane space TAS
GO:0005829 cytosol TAS
GO:0070469 respiratory chain IEA
GO ID 1 Component 1 GO ID 2 Component 2 Association Probability (PrOnto) Interaction Probability (PrOnto)
GO:0005743 mitochondrial inner membrane GO:0005829 cytosol 6.20e-17 9.93e-03
GO:0005829 cytosol GO:0070469 respiratory chain 3.52e-03 7.36e-07
PMID Article Title
2849112 The human somatic cytochrome c gene: two classes of processed pseudogenes demarcate a period of rapid molecular evolution.
9515723 Cytochrome c in the apoptotic and antioxidant cascades.
12690205 Human chromosome 7: DNA sequence and biology.
12853948 The DNA sequence of human chromosome 7.
13933734 The amino acid sequence of human heart cytochrome c.
14063298 Human heart cytochrome c. Chymotryptic peptides, tryptic peptides, and the complete amino acid sequence.
14702039 Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.
15489334 The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).
17974005 The full-ORF clone resource of the German cDNA consortium.
18345000 A mutation of human cytochrome c enhances the intrinsic apoptotic pathway but causes only thrombocytopenia.
19608861 Lysine acetylation targets protein complexes and co-regulates major cellular functions.
21269460 Initial characterization of the human central proteome.
23186163 Toward a comprehensive characterization of a human cancer cell phosphoproteome.
24275569 An enzyme assisted RP-RPLC approach for in-depth analysis of human liver phosphoproteome.
25944712 N-terminome analysis of the human mitochondrial proteome.
OMIM ID Disease Name
612004 Thrombocytopenia 4
Domain Name Domain ID Source
Cyt_c_1A/1B IPR002327 InterPro
Cyt_c-like_dom IPR009056 InterPro
Cyt_c-like_dom_sf IPR036909 InterPro
Cytochrom_C PF00034 Pfam
SSF46626 SSF46626 SUPFAM